It is generally well tolerated, but retinopathy is a concern. Retinopathy is rare, but is sight threatening, generally irreversible and may progress even after cessation of therapy. Although a number of risk factors have been proposed (such as duration of therapy and cumulative dose), the many exceptions (e.g. High triglycerides and plaquenil Does plaquenil help fibromyalgia Is plaquenil good or bad for kidneys Hydroxychloroquine is in a class of drugs called antimalarials. It is used to prevent and treat acute attacks of malaria. It is also used to treat discoid or systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis in patients whose symptoms have not improved with other treatments. The electroretinogram ERG. The global or full-field electroretinogram ERG is a mass electrical response of the retina to photic stimulation. The ERG is a test used worldwide to assess the status of the retina in eye diseases in human patients and in laboratory animals used as models of retinal disease. It is clear that the corneal full-field flash ERG has no place for the testing of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity. It is not sensitive enough to pick up early focal maculopathies. In fact, almost all focal maculopathies have an either normal or near normal corneal full-field flash ERG. Novel technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and multifocal electroretinogram (mf ERG) may provide the earliest structural and functional evidence of toxicity in these stages. Retinopathy on low-dose HCQ, or no retinopathy after a very large cumulative dose of HCQ) highlight our limited understanding of the disease process. Plaquenil fullfield erg severe ERG and other discriminators between advanced., The Electroretinogram and Electro-oculogram Clinical Applications by. Chloroquine quinine in a dtChloroquine descriptionWhat can plaquenil do to your eyesPregnancy ssa hydroxychloroquine Hydroxychloroquine should be used with extreme caution in patients with psoriasis or porphyria because it has been shown to precipitate severe attacks. Use hydroxychloroquine in patients with these conditions only if the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the possible risk. Plaquenil hydroxychloroquine sulfate dose, indications.. Retinal toxicity to antimalarial drugs chloroquine and.. ERG findings in patients using hydroxychloroquine.. In 2013, Roque published a review on “Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity” which listed full-field ERG or electro-oculogram as one of the ancillary tests. 21 The article stated although not recommended for toxicity screening because of sensitivity, specificity and reliability issues, it may be used in diagnosing toxicity. Cein angiography, full-field ERG, and electro-oculogram are not considered to be helpful.1-3 mfERG is a sensitive, objective, and reproducible test for detecting hydroxy-chloroquine toxicity. Several drugs taken in high doses or for long periods of time can cause retinal degeneration with pigmentary changes. The full-field ERG Ganzfeld; ffERG measures the stimulation of the entire retina with a flashlight source under dark-adapted scotopic and light-adapted photopic types of retinal is useful in detecting disease with widespread generalized retinal dysfunction i.e. cancer associated retinopathy, toxic retinopathies, and cone.