Pattern of Retinopathy: Although the locus of toxic damage is parafoveal in many eyes, Asian patients often show an extramacular pattern of damage. Dose: We recommend a maximum daily HCQ use of 5.0 mg/kg real weight, which correlates better with risk than ideal weight. Chloroquine injection route Chloroquine resistance in plasmodium falciparum How does h-chloroquine work for rheumatoid arthritis Hydroxychloroquine HCQ is efficacious for various diseases1,2, but can produce “bulls-eye” retinopathy that decreases vision even after discontinuance3,4. Retinopathy can be present in 7.5% of patients after 5 or more years of HCQ treatment, increasing to 20% after 20 years2. In 2016, the American Academy of Ophthalmology published new recommendations for the evaluation of HCQ. Fundus Autofluorescence FAF Early hydroxychloroquine toxicity can also be detected on autofluorescence as an increased ring of signal within the parafoveal and extramacular regions, which is indicative of photoreceptor dysfunction and RPE dysfunction. Dec 04, 2014 Hydroxychloroquine HCQ is an anti-malarial medication that has in recent times been utilized as treatment for a variety of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, and other inflammatory and dermatologic conditions. 1 Risk of Toxicity: The risk of toxicity is dependent on daily dose and duration of use. There are no similar demographic data for CQ, but dose comparisons in older literature suggest using 2.3 mg/kg real weight. Hydroxychloroquine toxicity autofluorescence Expanded spectral domain-OCT findings in the early detection., Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil Toxicity and Recommendations. Cellulitis from plaquenilPlaquenil build upOct of macular damage secondary to plaquenil toxicity Retinal toxicity from hydroxychloroquine is rare, but even if the medication is discontinued, vision loss may be irreversible and may continue to progress. It is imperative that patients and physicians are aware of and watch for this drug’s ocular side effects. Hydroxychloroquine-Induced Retinal Toxicity - American.. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy A review of imaging. Evaluation of Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy Using Ultra.. Sep 15, 2014 Hydroxychloroquine sulfate HCQ, Plaquenil is an analogue of chloroquine CQ, an antimalarial agent, used for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders. Its use has been associated with severe retinal toxicity, requiring a discontinuation of therapy. Aug 29, 2014 Plaquenil, hydroxychloroquine HCQ, is an anti-malarial medication that has been proven to be useful in the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis RA, systemic lupus erythematosus SLE and other inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Severe toxicity S1 3 2 4 3 4 4 4 S2 3 2 4 3 4 3 3 S3 3 2 — 2 4 — — Abbreviations Dash, not performed; ERG, electroretinography, FAF, fundus autofluorescence; mfERG, multifocal electroretinography; SD-OCT, spectral domain optical coherence tomography. aThe scale for grading toxicity is shown in Table 2. Scores for each patient are.